With its broad catalog of qualifying states, low fees, and a variety of ways receivers can access their money, it’s easy to see the appeal of this app. They don’t have a transfer minimum, making them the perfect fit for domestic transactions between family and friends. However, what makes BANKIT truly stand out is its fast transaction time. While this app doesn’t have some of the fancier features of other domestic fund transfer app, BANKIT’s simplicity can be appealing to some.
Each week you participate, earn reward points that you can redeem for gift cards and a wide variety of merchandise. With OnMyWay, you can make passive income from being a safe driver by not texting and driving. The app pays users to stay off their phones when they drive. Immediately receive $10 cash when you sign up and use the app.
Our ultimate goal is to educate and inform, not lure you into signing up for certain offers. Compensation from our partners may impact what products we cover and where they appear on the site, but does not have any impact on the objectivity of our reviews or advice. The other factor that determines a good company is whether its service is 24/7 or not.
However, although this route is quicker, it does have significantly higher fees. As for transaction limits, you can send or receive $250,000 per day (and $1,000,000 per year). And while having a borderless bank account works great, it is not a requirement to transfer money using this money transfer app. If you are looking for a quick and easy app that covers splitting restaurant bills or apartment utilities, then look no further than Square’s SQ Cash app.
Don’t worry — the account is FDIC-insured, and you’re not playing with your principal, or the money you’ve deposited into. Transferring funds through email money transfer generally comes with a nominal cost of a couple of dollars, which makes it a cheap option if it’s available to you. This service is also quite reliable and fast, generally only taking a few days to arrive in the recipient’s account. If you’re simply transferring money from one account to another within the same financial institution, this is something you can easily do at your bank for free. It can be done in person at a branch by withdrawing money from one account and making the deposit in another or by initiating the transfer online. In the technology-driven world we live in today, transferring money by cash, check, bank draft, or money order may seem like it’s going the way of the dinosaur.
Well, some people are known for borrowing money and never giving it back. That’s why it is safer to transfer the money via transfer apps since they save the records about transactions and you can at least prove something at the end. We all know that money problems never come in time, they always occur at the worst possible moment. Then you need to take actions fast without any distracting aspects. Unfortunately, a lot of banks require a number of procedures and paperwork before you transfer money. It probably has something to do with the ex-pats sending money to their families in developing countries.
A simple way to boost your savings is to have a savings account with a high-interest rate. Most large banks charge very low interest rates that earn you almost nothing. If you have a high interest over 1.75%, like at Allyor Synchrony, your money is working for you. The best checking accounts also provide you with free checks. To move money via check, you simply need to write a check and then deposit it at the other bank.
According to the site, 90% of its transactions are completed within minutes. The time it takes to receive the money though depends on where you are sending money with transfers to some countries being instant and for other countries, it can take 1 to 2 days. You can select the country you’re sending money to in order to see how long the international bank transfer will take. Wire transfers are also an easy way to send money internationally.
However, you can download the app on your smartphone for free. However, usually, OFX does not take a margin of more than 2% in fees. This is a relatively low exchange fee for the type of services OFX offers. There are many money transfer apps out there that anyone can use, but it’s important to understand which apps will best suit your specific needs.
After this information, you will need to provide the recipient details before selecting the payment method; debit/credit card or bank transfer. However, transactions with non-Payoneer accounts take longer depending on the payment methods used. Withdrawal from your Payoneer account to bank account may take 2-3 days.
After doing some research, here is a list of some of the best apps and providers I found that you can use for sending money overseas and domestically. IRA funds cannot be transferred from one bank to another as easily as cash from a checking account. You must open a rollover IRA account and arrange for an IRA rollover from your current account.
Search in your device’s app store and you’ll notice that there are seemingly endless apps to choose from. For international money transfers, OFX offers competitive exchange rates, but it can be a bit more technical to navigate. WorldRemit’s large network of local partners works with worldwide banks and financial institutions.
PDF Receipt generator is another excellent app that offers receipt making features. It does all requirement features you may need generating a receipt. All you need is to fill the form with appropriate and relevant information and get a fake receipt done. Don’t forget to add a logo and signature as the most sufficient data. The app will cost you nothing except extra features that you may need to proceed with in-app purchases. The first in our list is a Bildu app that combines a lot of features including invoices and estimates making, quotations and of course receipts construction.
Once you’re ready to cash out, you can withdraw the cash and deposit it into your checking account or savings account. There are more than 30 free games you can play, including word search, pool, chase, sudoku, card games and more. The average money transfer app download earnings per activity range from 25 cents to $5, so it’s easy for your money to grow. Boodle is a free app that will reward you for trying out new apps and games. You’ll earn Boodle coins every time you try out a new game or app.
Pinterest lets you organize and share all pictures of anything you find online or in your life. With Pinterest on your iPhone, it’s easy to snap photos in the real world and upload them to your boards. You can watch what others are pinning on Pinterest, and often, you can purchase the items by following a link out to the retailer’s site. You can use a VPN, but that means relying on an often relatively unknown company to keep all your browsing private through a single encrypted proxy server. Tor offers stronger privacy by routing encrypted internet traffic through multiple anonymous endpoints, obscuring your identity from the sites you visit.
Greenlight has an EMV chip and requires a PIN that you and your teen set. As you can see, I have a full accounting of where money is spent. I found out accidentally that money placed in savings needs my approval before it can be moved to earnings for my daughters to spend. It’s important to note that Greenlight limits monthly withdrawals to $105 per individual and $525 a month per family.
Track hours, log receipts, and send invoices from your smartphone or tablet. It includes invoicing, check printing, and bank integration. More expensive versions are $35 to $50 a month and include advanced features like bill payment scheduling, purchase order management, and inventory tracking.
Drop is available in Canada and the United States and you can read our complete Drop review here. Ipsos i-Say is a market research company that has been around for a while and has over 3 million members. They have an app that is available on both Android and iOS. PCMag, PCMag.com and PC Magazine are among the federally registered trademarks of Ziff Davis, LLC and may not be used by third parties without explicit permission.
You can double-dip and earn furter rewards for exercising and sticking to a meal plan. The app syncs with other fitness apps such as your Fitbit or MyFitnessPal. Every 10,000 points equates to $10 which you can withdraw to your bank or PayPal.
Wealthsimple Crypto App
Veem Capital’s Paid Now, Pay Later allows small businesses access to the working capital they need to expand. Apply right from the Veem dashboard and get approved in minutes. Venmo is one of the largest C2C payment networks available. It’s incredibly convenient for paying friends back after a night out, splitting a bill with roommates, or just treating your mom to a coffee. First, banks wait until they have verified that the sender actually has the money being sent to the payee. Join the Veem Beta program and access exclusive new features and tools.
The Zelle service is already built-in to some banking apps, but if your bank doesn’t support it, then the app is the only way you can use it, and it’s super easy to use. The screenshot above is enough to understand just how basic this app really is. You can use the same categories that filter transactions to create a specific monthly budget. Mint will send you notifications if you go over your budget in certain categories, and it’s easy to log in and see your progress.
So always be cautious, check the app ratings, and read the user reviews to learn which app gives real money before downloading any free cash apps and sharing your data. This list of the best money earning apps in India will show you how to earn money using mobile phones. Transferring money from a checking account to a prepaid card online is also usually free. In this case, you’d be asked to provide the bank name, account number and routing number of your prepaid card to create an external account. Pay Later enables US businesses to select bills that you want Veem to pay now while giving you the flexibility to pay off over time.
Upi Immediate Money Transfer, Bill Payment & More
This site and CardRatings may receive a commission from card issuers. Opinions, reviews, analyses & recommendations are the author’s alone and have not been reviewed, endorsed or approved by any of these entities. When you first using the app you will have to fill all the requirements fields and go through all the procedures to confirm your account. The first gives you a chance to send a smaller amount of money in one transaction, while the latter allows you to send up to 1 million in one transaction. The best thing about this app is that if you got it and the receiver got it – you don’t need to pay any commission, no matter where you’re sending money to. International money transfers are possible as well with various currencies available.
In general, this app allows you to transfer money to any country in the world. What is more, sending money via TransferWise can be to 8 times cheaper than high street banks – and that’s not even all its advantages. You can get a free multi-currency account and hold your money in several currencies at the same time. If you love traveling then this app is irreplaceable for you – you can get a TransferWise debit Mastercard. Xpress Money – Global money transfer is a good medium for transferring money to India.
This app is run by the Publishers Clearing House or PCH for short. Go to PCHGames to get access to scratch cards and instant win games where you could win up to $2,500. If you’re struggling with student loan or mortgage debt, give the Givling app a try. You can play free trivia games to win four- and five-digit cash payouts. All you need to do is download this free app and play any of the games to collect tickets. You need to get at least one ticket to be entered into the cash prize drawings.
The best money transfer apps allow you to easily transfer money to friends or family, or pay for goods/services through your smartphone or mobile device. WorldRemit is another app where you can send money internationally. You can send money to mobile money accounts, bank accounts, and locations for cash pickup. You can securely send money to friends and family through Messenger using a bank-issued debit card or PayPal account. A reliable money transfer app is a must have for your smartphone. There are so many excellent options that make it easier than ever to send money to your friends and family.
There is usually a charge associated with such transfers, so make sure you check the fees, but the best services usually offer reasonable rates that are worth the cost of convenience. If you have the email or U.S. mobile number of the recipient, you may be able to send money securely using an online service or app. For example, your bank’s app might include Zelle®, a fast, safe and easy way to send money to friends, family and others you trust, offered by most major U.S. banks. There is also a stand-alone Zelle app that friends can use with their debit cards if their banks don’t participate . You should only use an app like Zelle with friends or family, not with people you don’t know well, such as someone reselling concert tickets or doing another online transaction. This approach lets you easily send money to your loved ones, no matter where they bank in the U.S.
Like other challenger banks, Chime doesn’t hold your bank deposits — it is not a bank. Standout features of the app include its price — free — and the ability to assign photos to your goals, which you can name yourself. The visuals are designed to help you remember why you’re passing on instant-gratification spending and saving instead. The app will also send you messages that update you on your progress and share savings tips. One notable difference is Dobot’s owner, Fifth Third Bank. While you can use Dobot with a checking account from another bank, you will park your savings deposits at Fifth Third.
They also have a high percentage of tutors from Tier-2 and Tier-3 cities. Have you always dreamt of teaching but didn’t know where to start? With the WONK online teaching app, you can learn how to become an online tutor from the comfort of your home. When SHECO decided to create groups, I was invited to mentor one group of six members. Now it has grown to include more than 30 members and growing!
What Are The Best Money Making Apps?
The decision was made to facilitate swift and seamless payments in real-time for domestic businesses and institutions. We are authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority. We use best in class technology to give you the best experience from start to finish whilst using our service. Be assured, your money is safe and secured until its delivered.
Learn more from this video about how to send money online with Bank of America. Apple Pay Cash is a peer-to-peer payment system that acts like a bank account on your phone, targeting Venmo users. Using a credit card for payment will cost 3 percent per transaction. Zelle, which is already installed on bank customers’ phones , is available to 95 million current bank customers versus Venmo’s user base that totals around 3.5 million. However, the Zelle brand” — aka its “cool factor” — remains practically non-existent.
In terms of exchange rates, these are determined by where you’re sending money to and which currencies you are using. In general, the exchange rate margins applied by Ria Money Transfer tend to be between 0.5% and 2.5%. Skrill usually takes 2-3 business days to transfer funds to the recipient account. If you wish to withdraw your funds to your bank account, this can be executed instantly. Forbes Advisor analyzed numerous money transfer services to determine which was the best for a range of categories. Winners for each category were chosen based upon criteria including low fees, accessibility, a range of payment methods and time for delivery.
If you lose your mobile device, you can go to venmo.com and remove the session associated with your phone. That will automatically sign you out of the app on the phone. Venmo also uses multi-factor authentication as well as a personal identification number code to access the app. You can also use your account to send money internationally, though fees will apply . If you’re sending money to someone, make sure there’s enough money onyour Apple Cash cardoran eligible debit card in Wallet. Ersal is connected through a huge network of correspondent banks in which they offer remittance services.
Online & Mobile Resources
But if your bank or credit union doesn’t use Zelle then you must have a smartphone to access the app. You must also connect the app to a bank account, using a Visa or MasterCard debit card tied to the account. If your bank or credit union offers Zelle, you can use their online banking site to both send and receive money. Google Pay allows you to send rbs money transfer or request money, check out in app and on the web, and pay in stores using your smartphone. It can be connected to an American Express, Discover, MasterCard, or Visa card, as well as a bank account. Chime is an online bank that offers checking accounts and savings plans and its mobile app garnered more than 15,000 5-star Apple Store reviews.
With Venmo, you’ll get hit with a 3% fee if you use a credit card as the source. So use caution, and try to use existing funds or a debit card instead. Then, when you transfer funds to your bank, it’s free, but there’s a 1% fee ($10 max) if you want it instantly. As the financial technology sector continues to rapidly grow, financial service companies are striving to improve their international money transfer services.
Called SB Answer, this app from Swagbucks is very easy to use. It’s important to note that the “best” mobile payment app is the one that’s most convenient for you. If you discover that most of your friends use Venmo, then that’s probably your best bet.
Later on you can redeem these points with gadgets, gift cards and other rewards. This is among some really good money making apps for shoppers. SB Answer has some 18 million members who received over US$ 150 millions worth free shopping cards for their services. SB Answers is one of the hottest online survey apps to make money in US and certain other countries. By far, Swagbucks remains among America’s favourite money making apps to make extra cash on the move and in spare hours, without the bother of using your computer.
Easing the transfer process is the way WorldRemit has partnered with the likes of M-Pesa, EcoCash, MTN, Metrobank and other localised finance operations. Money is in the recipient’s account within minutes in most cases. Payments that are made between consumers who’re enrolled with Zelle don’t usually incur transaction fees but you should check with your financial institution to determine any fees. Here are the safest apps for transferring money to someone or a business quickly and easily.
The app also lets you set up your own “$Cashtag” code that lets you get paid anonymously. There’s also a $500 limit per day for debit card payments, $2,000 for bank accounts, with $1,000 and $5,000 per 30 days, respectively. For requesting money, sending has a $1,000 daily/$2,500 monthly limit, and a $2,500 daily/$4,000 monthly cap on payments. There are a plethora of mobile payment apps that have come to make transacting money easier. Learn what they offer, and which ones you should use to pay your friends and family.
Another popular game that pays money & lets you enjoy & earn at the same time. Playandwin.co.uk is Britain’s best gaming website offering free games and giving you a chance to win real money prizes. You can also take part in the tournament , play games for real money and have a lot of fun. Put your knowledge to use as you play this easy real money earning game. The anywhere, anytime convenience offered by the game makes it more popular among the players who are given the opportunity to win up to $3000.
The first step towards app monetization is to go ahead and build one. This means you’ll need a good idea that people will find useful and want to download. If you don’t have a specific idea for an app, you can always think about a problem you have and a way to solve it.
Opinion Outpost– Cash out at just $5 via PayPal or Amazon gift cards. InboxDollars pays you in real dollars, not points, and offers a free $5 sign-up bonus. Then, never put more money at risk than you can afford to lose. While the app has mostly positive reviews , others call their ads — which apparently claim you can win big money with little effort — misleading. Some are completely passive after you set them up, while others take a little more time.
I have been using Remitly for international money transfers for last 2 years. It's the best I have used and their mobile app is super easy.https://t.co/XOrO0WGnIi
— binkrisAFC (@bin_kris) August 19, 2021
Our platform will return the best transfer option for you, saving you up to 85% in hidden bank fees. PayPal offers its One Touch Mobile Cash Money App & Virtual Wallet app. One of the major advantages with the PayPal app is that it works with the basic PayPal account, which is a well-established payment system with a number of widely accepted features. Limits to send to family and friends with Chime’s internal app feature is $2,000 per month. Samsung Pay’s limits are the one your bank or credit card imposes.
There are instant cash transfers for most urgent situations. Actual transfer time, however, can vary depending on many variables, such as the source of the funds. The Steady app is a mobile app that makes finding work and side hustles easier. And it can help you make money from a variety of income sources from work at home and seasonal jobs to full time traditional jobs. Bank deposits are the most common delivery option available. Deposits can arrive within minutes although some bank transfers take up to seven days.
You can send funds from your credit card, debit card or your bank account via the Western Union website or mobile app. You can use Western Union to transfer funds internationally. Google Pay lets you send money to anyone through their email address or phone number. The money comes from your linked debit card or bank account. Recipients don’t need Google Pay to access the transfer, provided they have a Google account and a debit card or bank account toreceive the deposited funds. Google Pay doesn’t charge any fees, but you can only send or receive money within the U.S.
Unfortunately, the fees are a bit confusing to understand, so it’s important to read through them thoroughly. Most people, though, who trade for personal reasons should have no problem using PayPal absolutely free. You can send and request money through Google Pay, and even sign up for reminders to get alerted when it’s time to send/request money again (like for rent, work, etc.).
The Pogo app has a mix of both free and paid game options. There are many different choices, from arcade games to card favorites. The free version allows you to play a variety of games to earn points and enter drawings. Every time you add money to your account, you’ll earn coins to play games for cash prizes. While Long Game can be a fun way to pass the time, it can also help you achieve your financial goals.
Receivers have the option of cashing out immediately for a 1% fee or waiting up to three business days for funds to arrive in a linked bank account. Free to send and receive money by linking your bank account, debit card or prepaid debit card. The biggest drawback to PayPal is the fees it carries unless you link your bank account.
I have been using Remitly for international money transfers for last 2 years. It's the best I have used and their mobile app is super easy.https://t.co/XOrO0WGnIi
— binkrisAFC (@bin_kris) August 19, 2021
Select’s editorial team works independently to review financial products and write articles we think our readers will find useful. We may receive a commission when you click on links for products from our affiliate partners. Satrap is not a financial advisor & MoneyPantry.com is for entertainment & educational purposes only. Material shared on this blog does not constitute financial advice nor is it offered as such.
You can also request us to contact you and we shall let our expert executive’s guide you through the process. Tax Collection at Source at the rate of 5% will be levied under section 206C of the Income Tax Act on outbound tour services. The TCS collected will be reflected in the 26AS of the payer for claiming Income Tax credit. You may block foreign currency by paying 2% of total transaction value. Pay through multiple options such as online Bank Transfers, Credit Cards, Direct Debit, Payplus card or even cash at the branch.
We can’t talk about money transfer services without mentioning MoneyGram, one of the leading companies in remittances. MoneyGram’s services include money transfers, money orders and bill payment to those who don’t have bank accounts or who don’t want to use their regular bank account. Founded in 1993, XE Money Transfer has built its reputation in the area of international money transfer services. XE offers currency exchange tools and services to customers across the globe.
However, Vanguard offers more limited research and data than many of its competitors, making it better suited to buy-and-hold investors rather than active traders. To chalk it up, there are dozens of ways to make extra money with mobile apps that pay. Plus, they’ll all free so the only thing you are giving up is your time. So make sure you find the best money making apps to add to your side hustle arsenal. Start with a high-yield savings account like CIT Bank that offers a Savings Builder that will pay a great APY and still give you instant access to your money in case of an emergency.
Modern-day payment solutions that fit your needs, from one-off payments to sophisticated corporate solutions. Zelle uses authentication and monitoring features to make your payments secure. However, Venmo itself does not yet have international capabilities so you can’t arrange transfers to and from foreign-based parties. You can shop at millions of websites using Venmo as a payment option in connection with PayPal. You can also use the Venmo Debit Mastercard to shop at any merchants where Mastercard is accepted. When you make purchases using Venmo through PayPal, Venmo does not charge any additional fees.
Reading View clears away those annoying mobile ads, and Reading List saves articles for later, when you have time. With this smart app, you get time-, person- and place-based reminders, travel notifications, and a personalized news feed. Your daily glance reminds you about scheduled appointments, packages, stocks, and your favorite teams’ performance.
You can directly send cash to the bank account or mobile wallet. You can easily pay to various shops and online store which includes auto, mortgage, child support, utilities and more. For large mobile payments that work well for overseas transfers, consider using OFX . This money transfer app offers its services to an extensive list of countries, which means you can virtually transfer money anywhere. You can even use a variety of different currencies to do it.
- Venmo has a much smaller transfer limit than PayPal, allowing users to transfer up to $3,000 at a time compared to PayPal’s $10,000.
- He has been featured in over 100 publications, including Forbes, Business Insider, and Entrepreneur.
- If you’re abroad, you can transfer money into your account via the Monese European IBAN .
- Payoneer is also used by eCommerce marketplaces such as Walmart and freelance marketplaces such as Fiverr, while still catering for individuals who want to send money abroad.
Transfers are free when they come from your bank account, so don’t waste money on fees by paying with a credit card or debit card. Personal payments to friends and family are free using the Cash App. Like most of the other apps on this list, credit card payments through the Cash App attract a three percent fee, while an instant account deposit results in a 1.5 percent charge. This is a new method and is a good example of how online scams are evolving constantly. With this kind of fraud, the scammer uses robotic programming to collect information from victims, like card and bank account numbers or permissions.
Safety and security are always concerns when dealing with money. Make sure any payment site you use is secure and that your bank and personal information is encrypted. If the payment app or site requires a password, make sure you use a strong password. Here are eight ways you can send money to family and friends fast.
This app recently started charging users to use their service, which has made it less than great, but it still serves a purpose if you plan to save enough with it. You need to save over $5,000 per year to make the fees worthwhile – which can be hard for many using the service. Thankfully, technology has given us the ability to take personal responsibility out of the equation. Automatic savings apps are an easy, reliable and foolproof method to hack your way to saving more money. We’re proud of our content and guidance, and the information we provide is objective, independent, and free.
However, if you are not in a hurry, an average economy transfer to a person’s bank account takes 3 to 5 business days. You can also mail money directly to the receiver’s home address, but with this option, the timing is a bit more inconsistent. Considering their convenience and affordability, it’s little wonder that money transfer apps have become all the rage. Unfortunately, this high adoption rate has led to a saturated market.
As it offers free membership across the globe so you can compete with people everywhere & play games to win real money. To do this, tie your debit card or PayPal account to your Facebook account, and then open a new message with the person you want to send money to or request money from. Once you have money in your Cash App account, you can keep it there and use it free with the included debit card, which is also free and even supports cash-back features.
Based in California, the platform revolutionized e-commerce when it launched two decades ago and is one of the biggest players in the industry today. Business owners can create PayPal accounts to pay for goods and services and send money to people from all corners of the globe. You can use cash, debit card, your business credit card, or a bank transfer to fund transactions. Western Union is one of the oldest and largest money transfer service providers in the world.
Venmo is what you get when you make paying for things a social event. The champion of peer-to-peer payments, Venmo lets you catch up with your friends by spending money. For a one-stop shop that can do just about anything and transfer funds anywhere, PayPal is still the industry leader. WorldRemit, approved by the Financial Conduct Authority , puts a high priority on security by implementing strict verification procedures. The company employs teams to monitor accounts for unusual activity.
I think this app best for money transfer.
— Shilpa (@Shilpashini) August 20, 2021
To help you with this process, here are some top money transfer apps and their important characteristics. If you’re sending large amounts of money or you need a regular partner for international funds transfer, this one’s worth exploring. Western Union has long been the go-to company for sending money around the world. Today, the Western Union app makes it even more convenient.
Credit or debit card transfers are often your most expensive option, though often the fastest, while cash pick-ups can also increase what you’ll pay. When looking into how to send money from the USA to Ghana, you will need to consider the amounts you are sending. For this, look at the transfer service that is offering the best possible exchange rate.
You can use the money right away1to send to someone, spend with Apple Pay, or you cantransfer the money to your bank account or eligible debit card. When you send money in the Messages app using Apple Pay,your Apple Cash card transferwise account login is used to pay firstby default. If you want to use a debit card instead, you cansend money directly from your debit card. Use Apple Cash or a debit card in the Wallet app to send and receive money in the Messages app.
Just like other amazing features of Google, its Google wallet allows you to send money instantly to anyone you want. If you have an account on Google, you can easily sign up for Google Pay. The infrastructure is very easy to use and there is absolutely no fee for sending money to someone.
As a Gen Xer I have been slow to jump on the digital finance bandwagon. They stopped a month or so back and refused to pay out what was owed to people. The one drawback in this part of the online space is that it’s wrought with people trying to prey on others’ misfortune.
Be sure to check fees before assuming that all money transfers are free. The wide help perception is that your trusted bank is the safest and best method to transfer your money overseas. The reality is that this couldn’t be further from the truth. You can send money to anyone else that has a PayPal account – all you’ll need is the email address or phone number associated with the account. You can link a bank account to send and receive money with no fees, although processing times can vary.
Its tight security measures – making you enter your password every time you open the app, for example – further emphasizes the business heritage. While this may feel like a slight inconvenience, it’s surely a wise security measure. Transfers can be received as bank deposits and swiftly at that, in under 10 minutes in some cases.